Peer-reviewed journal articles


Gregg, EA., Kusmanoff, AM., Garrard, G.E., Kidd, LR., Bekessy, SA., (2021) Biodiversity conservation cannot afford COVID-19 communication bungles, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, (preprint: Gregg_et_al_preprint_070721)

Kirk H., Garrard G.E., Croeser T., Backstrom A., Berthon K., Furlong C., Hurley J., Thomas F.M., Webb A. & Bekessy S.A. (2021) Building biodiversity into the urban fabric: A case study in applying Biodiversity Sensitive Urban Design (BSUD). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 62:127176.

Gutierrez, M., Bekessy, S., Gordon, A. (2021). Biodiversity and ecosystem services in strategic environmental assessment: An evaluation of six Australian cases. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 87, 13.

Berthon, K., Thomas, F., Bekessy, SA. (2021). “The role of ‘nativeness’ in urban greening to support animal biodiversity.” Landscape and Urban Planning.

Damiens F., Backstrom A.Gordon A. (2021) Governing for ‘no net loss’ of biodiversity over the long-term: challenges and pathways forward. One Earth. 4: P60-74.

Damiens F., Porter L., Gordon A. (2021) The politics of biodiversity offsetting across time and institutional scales. Nature Sustainability. 4: 170–179.


zu Ermgassen SOSE, Maron M, Walker CMC, Gordon A, Simmonds JS, Strange N, Robertson M, Bull JW (2020) The hidden biodiversity risks of increasing flexibility in biodiversity offset trades. Biological Conservation. 252: 108861.

Garrard GE, Kusmanoff AM, Faulkner R, Samarasekara C, Gordon A, Johnstone A, Peterson IR, Torabi N, Wang Y, Bekessy SA (2020) Understanding Australia’s national feral cat control effort. Wildlife Research. 47: 698-708.

Gillies, N., Fayet, AL., Padget, O., Syposz, M., Wynn, J, Bond, S., Evry, J., Kirk, H., Shoji, A., Dean, B., Freeman, R., Guilford, T. (2020) Short-term behavioural impact contrasts with long-term fitness consequences of biologging in a long-lived seabird. NPJ, Scientific Reports 10 (1).

Bull JW, Strange N, Smith RJ, Gordon A (2020) Reconciling multiple counterfactuals when evaluating biodiversity conservation impact in social‐ecological systems. Conservation Biology.  35: 510-521.

Selinske, MJ., Fidler, F., Gordon, A., Garrard, GE., Kusmanoff, AM., Bekessy, SA. (2020) We have a steak in it: Eliciting interventions to reduce beef consumption and its impact on biodiversity. Conservation Letters.

Gregg, EA., Bekessy, SA., Martin, JK., Garrard, GE. (2020) Many IUCN red list species have names that evoke negative emotions. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. (Preprint: Gregg_et_al_2020_preprint).

Kusmanoff AM, Fidler F, Gordon A, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA (2020) Five lessons to guide more effective biodiversity conservation message framing. Conservation Biology. (Preprint: Kusmanoff et al. 2020)

Sharma, R., Eklund, J., Barnes, M., Geldmann, J., Schleicher, J., Pressey, RL., et al. The impact of terrestrial protected areas on vegetation extent and condition: a systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence. 2020;9:1-7.

Rimal B, Sloan S, Keshtkar H, Sharma R., Rijal S, Shrestha UB. Patterns of Historical and Future Urban Expansion in Nepal. Remote Sensing. 2020;12(4):628.

Sonter L.J., Gordon A., Archibald C., Simmonds J.S., Ward M., Metzger J.P., Rhodes J.R., Maron M. (accepted 16th August 2019) Offsetting Impacts of Development on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Ambio.


Rimal B, Sharma R, Kunwar R, Keshtkar H, Stork NE, Rijal S, et al. Effects of land use and land cover change on ecosystem services in the Koshi River Basin, Eastern Nepal. Ecosystem Services. 2019;38:100963.

Padget, O., Stanely, G., Willis, J.K., Fayet, A., Shoji, A., Maurice, L., Dean, B., Kirk, H., Juarez-Martinez, I., Bond, S., Freeman, R., Guilford., T. (2019) Shearwaters know the direction and distance home, but fail to encode intervening obstacles after free-ranging foraging trips. PNAS 116 (43).

Rimal B, Keshtkar H, Sharma R, Stork N, Rijal S, Kunwar R. Simulating urban expansion in a rapidly changing landscape in eastern Tarai, Nepal. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2019;191(4):255.

Steven R, Barnes M, Garnett S, Garrard GE, O’Connor J, Oliver J, Robinson C, Tulloch A, Fuller R (Accepted) Aligning citizen science with best practice: Threatened species conservation in Australia. Conservation Science and Practice. e100

Travers, H., Selinske, M., Nuno, A., Serban, A., Mancini, F., Barychka, T., Bush, E., Rasolofoson, R.A., Watson, J.E. and Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2019. A manifesto for predictive conservation. Biological Conservation, 237: 12-18.

Kidd LR, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, Mills M, Camilleri AR, Fidler F, Fielding KS, Gordon A, Gregg EA, Kusmanoff AM, Louis W, Moon K, Robinson JA, Selinske MJ, Shanahan D & Adams VM. (2019) Messaging matters: A systematic review of the conservation messaging literature. Biological Conservation. 236: 92-99.

Kidd LR, Bekessy SA, Garrard GE (2019) Neither hope nor fear: Evidence should drive conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 34: 278-282.

Mata L, Garrard GE, Fidler F, Ives CD, Maller M, Wilson J, Thomas F, Bekessy SA. (2019) Punching above their weight: The ecological and social benefits of pop-up parks. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Selinske MJ, Howard N, Fitzsimons JA, Hardy MJ, Smillie K, Forbes J, Tymms K, Knight AT. (2019) Monitoring and evaluating the social and psychological dimensions that contribute to privately protected area program effectiveness. Biological Conservation, 229: 170-178.

Maseyk F.J.F, Maron M., Gordon A., Bull J.W., Evans M.C. (Accepted 1st May 2019) Improving averted loss lestimates for better biodiversity outcomes from offset exchanges.

Tulloch A.I.T., Gordon A., Runge C., Rhodes J.R. (2019) Integrating spatially realistic infrastructure impacts into conservation planning to inform strategic environmental assessment. Conservation Letters. doi: 10.1111/conl.12648

Wintle B.A., Kujala H., Whitehead A., Cameron A., Veloz S., Kukkala A., Moilanen A., Gordon A., Lentini P.E., Cadenhead N.C.R., Bekessy S.A. (2019) Global synthesis of conservation studies reveals the importance of small habitat patches for biodiversity. PNAS. 116: 909-914. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1813051115.

Strassburg B., Beyer H., Crouzeilles R., Iribarrem A., Barros F., de Siqueira M.F., Sánchez-Tapia A., Balmford A., Boelsums J., Brancalion P.H.S., Broadbent E.N., Chazdon R., Oliveira-Filho A., Gardner T., Gordon A., Latawiec A., Loyola R., Metzger J.P., Mills M., Possingham H., Rodrigues R.R., Scaramuzza C.A., Scarano F., Tambosi L., Uriart M. (2019) Strategic approaches to restoring ecosystems can triple conservation gains and halve costs. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3: 62–70. doi: 10.1038/s41559-018-0743-8.


Ives CD, Gordon A, Oke C, Raymond CM, Heir A, Bekessy SA. (2018) Spatial scale influences how people value and perceive green open space. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management.

Peterson I., Maron M., Moilanen A., Bekessy S., Gordon A. (2018) A quantitative framework for evaluating the impact of biodiversity offset policies. Biological Conservation. 224: 162-169. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.05.005.

Poodat F., Arrowsmith C., Tabrizi A.M., Gordon A. (2018) Application of Graph Theory in Landscape Ecology The Case Study: Assessment of Habitat Connectivity within Greater Melbourne. Iranian Journal of Applied Ecology. 6: 81-95. doi: 10.29252/ijae.6.4.81.

Backstrom A, Garrard GE, Hobbs RJ, Bekessy SA. (2018) Grappling with the social dimension of novel ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. doi:10.1002/fee.1769.

Clements HS, Selinske MJ, Archibald CL, Cooke B, Fitzsimons JA, Groce JE, Torabi N, Hardy MJ. (2018) Fairness and transparency are required for the inclusion of Privately Protected Areas in publicly accessible conservation databases. Land 7(3): 96. doi: 10.3390/land7030096

Kidd LR, Gregg EA, Bekessy SA, Robinson JA & Garrard GE (2018) Tweeting for their lives: Visibility of threatened species on Twitter. Journal for Nature Conservation. 46:106-109.

Selinske MJ, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, Kusmanoff AM, Gordon A, Fidler F. (2018) Revisiting the promise of conservation psychology. Conservation Biology. doi:10.1111/cobi.13106

Hardy MJ, Fitzsimons JA, Bekessy SA, Gordon A. (2018) Purchase, protect, resell, repeat: An effective process for conserving biodiversity on private land? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16: 336-344. doi:10.1002/fee.1821.

Hardy MJ, Bekessy SA, Fitzsimons JA, Mata L, Cook C, Nankivell A, Smillie K, Gordon A. (2018) Protecting nature on private land using revolving funds: Assessing property suitability. Biological Conservation 220: 84–93. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2018.01.026.

Hardy MJ, Fitzsimons JA, Bekessy SAGordon A. (2018) Factors influencing property selection for conservation revolving funds. Conservation Biology 32: 276-286. doi:10.1111/cobi.12991.

Kujala H, Moilanen A, Gordon A. (2018) Spatial characteristics of species distributions as drivers in conservation prioritisation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9: 1121-1132.

Maron M, Brownie S, Bull JW, Evans MC, von Hase A, Quitter F, Watson JEM, Gordon A. (2018) The many meanings of no net loss in environmental policy. Nature Sustainability 1: 19-27. doi:10.1038/s41893-017-0007-7.


Garrard GE, Williams NSG, Mata L, Thomas J & Bekessy SA (2017) Biodiversity sensitive urban design. Conservation Letters.

Eilam E & Garrard GE (2017) Perception of space among children studying their local grasslands: Examining attitudes and behavioural intentions. Sustainability.

Fraser H, Hauser CE, Rumpff L, Garrard GE and McCarthy MA (2017) Classifying animals into ecologically meaningful groups: a case study on woodland birds. Biological Conservation. 214: 184-194. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.07.006

Baker CM, Gordon A, Bode M. (2017) Ensemble ecosystem modelling for predicting ecosystem response of predator reintroduction. Conservation Biology 31: 376-384. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12798 – Pre-print version: Baker et al. (2016)

Bowman DMJS, Garnett ST, Barlow S, Bekessy SA, Bellairs SM, Bishop MJ, Bradstock RA, Jones DN, Maxwell SL, Pittock J, Toral-Granda MV, Watson JEM, Wilson T, Zander KK, Hughes L. (2017) Renewal ecology: conservation for the Anthropocene. Restoration Ecology 25: 674-680.

Fidler F, En Chee Y, Wintle BC, Burgman M, McCarthy MA, Gordon A. (2017) Metaresearch for evaluating reproducibility in ecology and evolution. BioScience 67: 282-289. doi:

Hardy MJ, Fitzsimons JA, Bekessy SAGordon A. (2017) Exploring the permanence of conservation covenants. Conservation Letters 10: 221-230. doi: 10.1111/conl.12243. Pre-print version: Hardy et al. (2017)

Ives CD, Oke C, Hehir A, Gordon A, Wang Y, Bekessy SA. (2017) Capturing residents’ values for urban green space: mapping, analysis and guidance for practice. Landscape and Urban Planning 161: 32–43. Pre-print version: Ives_et_al (2017)

Kusmanoff AM, Fidler F, Gordon A, Bekessy SA. (2017) Decline of ‘biodiversity’ in conservation policy discourse in Australia. Environmental Science and Policy 77: 160-165.

Koshkina V, Wang Y, Gordon A, Dorazio R, Stone L. (2017) Integrated Species Distribution Models: Combining presence-only data and presence-absence data with imperfect detection. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8: 420-430. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12738

Law EA, Ferraro PJ, Arcese P, Bryan BA, Davis K, Gordon A, Holden MH, Iacona G, Marcos Martinez R, McAlpine CA, Rhodes JR, Szej JS, Wilson KA. (2017) Projecting the performance of conservation interventions. Biological Conservations 215: 142-151.

Lindenmayer DB, Crane M, Evans MC, Moron M, Gibbons P, Bekessy SA, Blanchard W. (2017) The anatomy of a failed offset. Biological Conservation 210: 286-292.

Mata LGarrard GE, Kutt AS, Wintle BC, En Chee Y, Backstrom A, Bainbridge B, Urlus J, Brown GW, Tolsma AD, Yen AL, New TR, Bekessy SA. (2017) Eliciting and integrating expert knowledge to assess the viability of the critically endangered golden sun-moth Synemon plana. Austral Ecology 42: 297-308.

Mata L, Threlfall CG, Williams NSG, Hahs AK, Malipatil M, Stork NE, Livesley SJ. (2017) Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces. Scientific Reports 7: 40970. doi: 10.1038/srep40970

Mumaw LM, Bekessy SA. (2017) Wildlife gardening for collaborative public–private biodiversity conservation. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 24: 242-246.

Mumaw LM, Maller C, Bekessy SA. (2017) Strengthening wellbeing in urban communities through wildlife gardening. Cities and the Environment 10: art 6.

Pamungkas A, S Bekessy SA, Lane R. (2017) Adaptations assessment on the impacts of flooding under current condition and climate change scenario, case study: Centini village, Indonesia. Tataloka 19: 163-174.

Runge CA, Talloch AIT, Gordon A, Rhodes JR. (2017) Quantifying the conservation gains from shared access to linear infrastructure. Conservation Biology 31: 1428–1438. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12952

Selinske MJ, Cooke B, Torabi NHardy MJ, Knight A, Bekessy SA. (2017) Locating financial incentives amongst diverse motivations for long-term private land conservation. Ecology and Society 22: 7. doi: 10.5751/ES-09148-220207

Thomas FM, Vesk PA. (2017) Are trait- growth models transferable? Predicting multi- species growth trajectories between ecosystems using plant functional traits. PLoS ONE 12: e0176959. doi: pone.0176959

Thomas FM, Vesk PA. (2017) Growth races in The Mallee: Height growth in woody plants examined with a trait-based model. Austral Ecology 42: 790–800. doi: 10.1111/aec.12501

Threlfall CG, Mata L, Mackie J, Hahs AK, Stork NE, Williams NSG, Livesley SJ. (2017) Increasing biodiversity in urban green spaces through simple vegetation interventions. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 1874-1883.


Bull JW, Gordon A, Watson JEM, Maron M. (2016) Seeking convergence on key concepts in ‘no net loss’ policy. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 1686-1693. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12726.

Garrard GE, Fidler F, Wintle BC, En Chee Y, Bekessy SA. (2016) Beyond advocacy: making space for conservation scientists in public debate. Conservation Letters 9: 208–212.

Gibbons P, Evans MC, Maron M, Gordon A, Le Roux D, von Hase A, Lindenmayer DB, Possingham HP. (2016) A loss-gain calculator for biodiversity offsets and the circumstances in which no net loss is feasible. Conservation Letters 9: 252–259.

Kusmanoff AM, Fidler F, Hardy M, Maffey G, Raymond C, Reed M, Fitzsimons J, Bekessy SA. (2016) Framing the private land conservation conversation: strategic framing of the benefits of conservation participation could increase landholder engagement. Environmental Science and Policy 61: 124–128.

Ives CD, Lentini PE, Threlfall CG, Ikin K, Shanahan DF, Garrard GEBekessy SA, Fuller RA, Mumaw L, Rayner L, Rowe R, Valentine L, Kendall D. (2016) Cities are hotspots for threatened species. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 117–26.

Laze K, Gordon A. (2016) Incorporating natural and human factors in habitat modelling and spatial prioritisation for the Lynx lynx martinoi. Web Ecology 16: 17–31.

Maron M, Gordon A, Mackey BG, Possingham HP, JEM Watson JEM. (2016) Interactions between biodiversity offsets and protected area commitments: Avoiding perverse outcomes. Conservation Letters 9: 384–389.

Maron M, Ives CD, Kujala H, Bull JW, Maseyk F, Bekessy SAGordon A, Watson JEM, Lentini P, Gibbons P, Possingham HP, Hobbs RJ, Keith DA, Wintle BA, Evans MC. (2016) Taming a wicked problem: resolving controversies in biodiversity offsetting. BioScience 66: 489-498. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw038

Torabi N, Cooke B, Bekessy SA. (2016) The role of social networks and trusted peers in promoting biodiverse carbon plantings. Australian Geographer 47: 139–156.

Torabi NMata LGordon AGarrard GE, Wescott W, Dettmann P, Bekessy SA. (2016) The money or the trees: what drives landholders’ participation in biodiverse carbon plantings? Global Ecology and Conservation 7: 1–11.

West S, Schultz L, Bekessy SA. (2016) Rethinking social barriers to effective adaptive management. Environmental management 58: 399–416.


Bull JW, Gordon A. (2015) Schrödinger’s microbe: implications of coercing a living organism into a coherent quantum mechanical state. Biology and Philosophy 30: 845–56. Pre-print version: Bull & Gordon (2015).

Bull JW, Hardy MJ, Moilanen A, Gordon A. (2015) Categories of flexibility in biodiversity offsetting, and their implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 31: 522–32. Pre-print version: Bull_et al. (2015).

Corney H, Ives CD, Bekessy SA. (2015) Amenity and ecological management: A review and framework for practice. Ecological Management and Restoration 16: 199–205.

Fraser H, Garrard GE, Rumpff L, Hauser CE, McCarthy MA. (2015) Consequences of inconsistently classifying woodland birds. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3: 83.

Garrard GE, McCarthy MA, Bekessy SA, Wintle BA. (2015) Incorporating detectability into environmental impact assessment for threatened species. Conservation Biology 29: 216–225.

Gordon A. (2015) Implementing backcasting for conservation: determining multiple
policy pathways for retaining future targets of endangered woodlands
in Sydney, Australia. Biological Conservation 181: 182–189.

Gordon A, Bull JW, Wilcox C, Maron M. (2015) Perverse incentives risk undermining biodiversity offset policies. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 532–537.

Guillera-Arroita G, Lahoz-Monfort JJ, Elith J, Gordon A, Kujala H, Lentini PE, McCarthy MA, Tingley R, Wintle BA. (2015) Is my species distribution model fit for purpose? Matching data and models to applications. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 276–292.

Ives CD, Bekessy SA. (2015) The ethics of offsetting biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the  Environment 13: 568-573.

Ives CD, Biggs D, Hardy MJ, Lechner AM, Wolnicki M, Raymond CM. (2015) Using social data in strategic environmental assessment to conserve biodiversity. Land Use Policy 47: 332–341.

Kark S, Tulloch A, Gordon A, Mazor T, Bunnefeld N, Levin N. (2015) Cross-boundary collaboration: key to the conservation puzzle. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 12: 12–24.

Law EA, Bryan BA, Torabi NBekessy SA, McAlpine CA, Wilson KA. (2015) Measurement matters in managing landscape carbon. Ecosystem Services 13: 6–15.

Maron M, Bull JW, Evans MC, Gordon A. (2015) Locking in loss: Baselines of decline in Australian biodiversity offset policies. Biological Conservation 192: 504–512.

Poodat F, Arrowsmith C, Fraser D, Gordon A. (2015) Prioritising urban habitats for connectivity conservation: Integrating centrality and metapopulation metrics. Environmental Management 56: 664–674.

Selinske MJ, Coetzee J, Purnell K, Knight AT. (2015) Understanding the motivations, satisfaction, and retention of landowners in private land conservation programs. Conservation Letters 8: 282–289.

Steele W, Mata L, Fünfgeld H. (2015) Urban climate justice: Creating sustainable pathways for humans and other species. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14: 121–126.

Jones CS, Duncan DH, Rumpff L, Thomas FM, Morris WK, Vesk PA. (2015) Empirically validating a dense woody regrowth ‘problem’ and thinning ‘solution’ for understory vegetation. Forest Ecology and Management 340: 153-162.

Threlfall CG, Walker K, Williams NSG, Hahs AK, Mata L, Stork NE, Livesley SJ. (2015) The conservation value of urban green space habitats for Australian native bee communities. Biological Conservation 187: 240–248.

Torabi NBekessy SA. (2015) Bundling and stacking in bio-sequestration schemes: opportunities and risks. Ecosystem Services 15: 84–92.


Bull JW, Gordon A, Law E, Suttle KB, Milner-Gulland EJ. (2014) The importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving ‘no net loss’ of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 28: 799–809.

Lechner AM, Raymond C, Adams VM, Polyakov M, Gordon A, Rhodes J, Mills M, Stein A, Ives CD, Lefroy T. (2014) Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning: a review and research agenda. Conservation Biology 28: 1497–1511.

Mata L, Goula M, Hahs AK. (2014) Conserving insect assemblages in urban landscapes: accounting for species-specific responses and imperfect detection. Journal of Insect Conservation 18: 885–894.

Pamungkas A, Bekessy SA, Lane R. (2014) Vulnerability modeling to improve assessment process on community vulnerability. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 135: 159–166.

Whitehead A, Kujala H, Ives CD, Gordon A, Lentini P, Wintle B, Nicholson E, Raymond C. (2014) Integrating biological and social values when prioritising places for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 28: 992–1003.


Bull JW, Suttle KB, Gordon A, Singh NJ, Milner-Gulland EJ. (2013) Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice. Oryx 47: 369-380.

Garrard GE, McCarthy MA, Williams NSG, Wintle BA, Bekessy SA. (2013) A general model of detectability using species traits. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4: 45-52.

Gordon A, Bastin L, Langford WT, Lechner AM, Bekessy SA. (2013) Simulating the value of collaboration in multi-actor conservation planning. Ecological Modelling 249: 19–25.

Kendal D, Hauser CE, Garrard GE, Jellinek S, Giljohann KM, Moore JL. (2013) Quantifying plant colour and colour difference as perceived by humans using digital images. PLoS ONE 8: e72296.

Levin N, Tulloch A, Gordon A, Mazor T, Bunnefeld N, Kark S. (2013) Incorporating socio-economic and political factors into cross-boundary conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea: Mare Nostrum. Bioscience 63: 547-563.

Wilson JN, Bekessy SA, Parris KM, Gordon A, Heard GW, Wintle BA. (2013) Impacts of climate change and urban development on the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis). Austral Ecology 38: 11-22.


Bekessy SA, White MD, Gordon A, Moilanen A, McCarthy MA, Wintle BA. (2012) Transparent conservation planning in the urban fringe. Landscape and Urban Planning 108: 140-149.

Cooke B, Langford WT, Gordon ABekessy SA. (2012) Social context and the role of collaborative policy-making for private land conservation. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 55: 469–485. Pre-print version: Cooke et al. (2012)

Garrard GE, McCarthy MA, Vesk PA, Radford JQ, Bennett AF. (2012) A predictive model of avian natal dispersal distance provides prior information for investigating response to landscape change. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 14–23.

Gordon A, Wintle BA, Bekessy SA, Pearce J, Venier L, Wilson JN. (2012) The use of dynamic landscape metapopulation models for forest management: a case study of the red-backed salamander. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42: 1091–1106.

Lechner AM, Langford WT, Bekessy SA, Jones SD. (2012) Are landscape ecologists addressing uncertainty in their remote sensing data? Landscape Ecology 27: 1249–1261.

Lechner AM, Langford WT, Jones SD, Bekessy SAGordon A. (2012) Investigating species-environment relationships at multiple scales: differentiating between intrinsic scale and the modifiable areal unit problem. Ecological Complexity 11: 91–102.

McCarthy MA, Moore JL, Morris WK, Parris KM, Garrard GE, Vesk PA, Rumpff L, Giljohann K, Camac J, Bau SS, Friend T, Harrison B, Yue B. (2012) The influence of abundance on detectability. Oikos 122: 717–726.


Gordon A, Langford WT, Todd JA, White MD, Mullerworth DW, Bekessy SA. (2011) Assessing the impacts of biodiversity offset policies. Environmental Modelling and Software 26: 1481–1488.

Gordon A, Langford WT, White MD, Todd JA, Bastin L. (2011) Modelling trade offs between public and private conservation policies. Biological Conservation 144: 558–556. Pre-print version: Gordon et al. (2011)

Hegarty K, Thomas I, Kriewaldt K, Holdsworth S, Bekessy SA. (2011) Insights into the value of a ‘stand alone’ course for sustainability education. Environmental Education Research 17: 451–469.

Langford WT, Gordon A, Bastin L, Bekessy SA, White MD, Newell G. (2011) Raising the bar for systematic conservation planning. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 634–640. Pre-print version: Langford et al. (2011)

McCarthy MA, Garrard GE, Moore JL, Parris KM, Regan TJ, Ryan GE. (2011) The SAFE index should not be used for prioritization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 486–487. 

Wintle BA, Bekessy SA, Keith DA, van Wilgen BW, Cabeza M, Schröde B, Carvalho SB, Falcucci A, Maiorano L, Regan TJ, Rondinini C, Boitani L, Possingham HP. (2011) Ecological–economic optimization of biodiversity conservation under climate change. Nature Climate Change 1: 355–359.


Bekessy SA, Wintle BA, Lindenmayer DB, McCarthy MA, Colyvan M, Burgman MA, Possingham HP. (2010) The biodiversity bank cannot be a lending bank. Conservation Letters 3: 151–158.

Parris KM, McCall SC, McCarthy MA, Minteer BA, Steele K, Bekessy SA, Medvecky F. (2010) Assessing ethical trade-offs in ecological field studies. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 227–234.

Wintle BA, Runge MC, Bekessy SA. (2010) Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns. Ecology Letters 13: 1325–1337.


Bekessy SA, Wintle BA, Gordon A, Fox JC, Brown B, Regan T, Mooney N, Read SM, Burgman MA. (2009) Modelling human impacts on the Tasmanian wedge-tailed eagle (Aquila audax fleayi). Biological Conservation 142: 2438–2448.

Gordon A, Simondson D, White MD, Moilanen A, Bekessy SA. (2009) Integrating conservation planning and landuse planning in urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 91: 183–194.

Holdsworth S, Bekessy SA, Thomas I. (2009) Evaluation of curriculum change at RMIT: Experiences of the BELP project. Reflecting Education 5: 51–72.

Langford WT, Gordon A, Bastin L. (2009) When do conservation planning methods deliver? Quantifying the consequences of uncertainty. Ecological Informatics 4: 123–135.

McDonald-Madden E, Gordon A, Wintle BA, Walker S, Grantham H, Carvalho S, Bottrill M, Joseph L, Ponce R, Stewart R, Possingham HP. (2009) “True” conservation progress. Science 323: 43–44.


Bekessy SA, Wintle BA. (2008) Using carbon investment to grow the biodiversity bank. Conservation Biology 22: 510–513.

Garrard GEBekessy SA, McCarthy MA, Wintle BA. (2008) When have we looked hard enough? A novel method for setting minimum survey effort protocols for flora surveys. Austral Ecology 33: 986–998.

Gibbons P, Zammit C, Youngentob K, Possingham HP, Lindenmayer DB, Bekessy SA, Burgman M, Colyvan M, Considine M, Felton A, Hobbs RJ, Hurley K, McAlpine C, McCarthy MA, Moore J, Robinson D, Salt D, Wintle BA. (2008) Some practical suggestions for improving engagement between researches and policy-makers in natural resource management. Ecological Management and Restoration 9: 182–186.

Holdsworth S, Wyborn C, Bekessy SA, Thomas T. (2008) Professional development for education for sustainability: How Advanced are Australian universities? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 9: 1467–6370.


Bekessy SA, Clarkson RE, Sampson K. (2007) The failure of non-binding declarations to achieve university sustainability: A need for accountability. International Journal for Sustainability in Higher Education 8: 1467–6370.

Venier LA, Pearce JL, Wintle BA, Bekessy SA. (2007) Future forests and indicator-species population models. The Forestry Chronicle 83: 36–40.


Bekessy SA, Wintle BA. (2006) More than one route to PhD success. Nature 443: 720–720.


Wintle BA, Bekessy SA, Venier LA, Pearce JL. (2005) Utility of dynamic landscape metapopulation models for sustainable forest management. Conservation Biology 19: 1930–1943.

Scholarly Books 

Buxton M, Tieman G, Bekessy SA, Budge T, Butt A, Coote M, Lechner A, Mercer D, O’Neill D, Riddington C. (2007) Change and continuity in peri-urban Australia, peri-urban case study: Bendigo corridor monograph 2. RMIT University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Buxton M, Tieman G, Bekessy SA, Budge T, Mercer D, Coote M, Morcombe J. (2006) Change and continuity in peri-urban Australia, state of the peri-urban regions: A Review of the Literature. RMIT University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Scholarly book chapters

Bekessy SASelinske MJ. (2017) Social-ecological analyses for better water resources decisions. In: Decision making in water resources policy and management (eds Hart BT, Doolan J), pp 151-164, Elsevier, United Kingdom.

Garrard GE, Rumpff L, Runge MC, Converse SJ. (2017) Rapid prototyping for decision structuring: an efficient approach to conservation decision analysis. In Bunnefeld N, Nicholson E & Milner-Gulland EJ (Eds) Decision-making in conservation and natural resource management: models for interdisciplinary approaches, Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781107465381.

Hauser CE, Garrard GE, Moore JL. (2015) Estimating detection rates and probabilities. In: Biosecurity surveillance: Quantitative approaches (eds F Jarrad et al.), pp 151–166, CABI, Oxfordshire and Boston.

Sharp S, Garrard GE, Wong N. (2015) Planning, documenting and monitoring for grassland management. In: Land of sweeping plains: Managing and restoring the native grasslands of south-eastern Australia (eds NSG Williams, A Marshall, JW Morgan), pp xxx­–xxx, CSIRO Publishing. ISBN: 9781486300815.

Garrard GEBekessy SA. (2014) Landscapes and land use planning. In: Australian environmental planning: Challenges and future prospects (eds J Byrne et al.), pp 61–72, Routledge.

Goula M, Mata L. (2014) Predatory arthropods in agroecosystems of Almería. In: Organisms for the control of pathogens in protected crops: Cultural practices for sustainable agriculture. (eds JC Tello & FC Ferre), pp xxx–xxx. Fundación Cajamar, Almería.

Ives CD, Beilin R, Gordon A, Kendal D, Hahs A, McDonnell M. (2013) Local assessment of Melbourne: The biodiversity and social-ecological dynamics of Melbourne, Australia. In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (eds. T. Elmqvist et al.), pp 385–407, Springer Netherlands.

Bekessy SA, Cooke B. (2011) Social and cultural drivers behind the success of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES). In: Payment for Ecosystem Services and Food Security (eds D Ottaviani, N El-Hage Scialabba), pp 141–155, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.

Bekessy SA, Wintle BA, Lindenmayer DB, McCarthy MA, Colyvan M, Burgman MA, Possingham HP. (2011) Growing biodiversity banking. In: Payment for Ecosystem Services and Food Security (eds D Ottaviani, N El-Hage Scialabba), pp 104–107, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.

Bekessy SA, Wintle BA, Gordon A, Chisholm RA, Venier L, Pearce J. (2008) Dynamic landscape meta-population models and sustainable forest management. In: Models for planning wildlife conservation in large landscapes (eds JJ Millspaugh, FR Thompson), pp 473–499, Elsevier Science, Netherlands.

Lechner A, Jones S, Bekessy SA. (2008) A study on the impact of scale dependent factors on the classification of landcover maps. In: Quality aspects in spatial data mining (eds A Stein et al.), pp 315–328, Chapman and Hall, Netherlands.

Premoli AC, del Castillo R, Newton AC, Bekessy SA, Caldiz M, Martínez C, Mathiasen P, Núñez-Avila MC, Quiroga P, Souto C, Trujillo S. (2008) Patterns of genetic variation in tree species and their implications for conservation. In: Biodiversity loss and conservation in fragmented forest landscapes. The forests of montane Mexico and temperate South America (ed A Newton), pp 120–157, CABI Publishing, United Kingdom.

Holdsworth S, Bekessy SA, Mnguni P, Hayles C, Thomas I. (2006) Beyond Leather Patches (BELP): Sustainability education at RMIT University. In: Sustainability in the Australasian University context (eds W Leal et al.), pp107–128, Peter Lang Publishers, Frankfurt, Germany.

Bekessy SAGordon A. (2007) Nurturing nature in the city. In: Steering Sustainability (ed. A Nelson), pp 227–238. Ashgate, Hampshire.

Bekessy SA, Lara A, González M, Cortes M, Gallo L, Premoli AC, Newton AC. (2004) Variación genética en Araucaria araucana. In: Variación en especies nativas de los bosques templados chileno-argentinos (eds C Donoso, R Ipinza), pp. 215–232, Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Bekessy SA, Newton AC, Fox JC, Lara A, Premoli A, Cortes M, Gonzalez M, Burns B, Gallo L, Izquierdo F, Burgman MA. (2004) The monkey puzzle tree in southern Chile. In: Species conservation and management: Case studies (eds HR Açkakaya et al.), pp 48–63, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Refereed conference papers

Hauser CE, Moore JL, Giljohann KM, Garrard GE, McCarthy MA. (2012) Designing a detection experiment: Tricks and trade-offs. In: Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Weeds Conference (ed V Eldershaw), pp 267–272, Weed Society of Victoria, October 2012.

Lechner AM, Arnold S, Fletcher AT, Gordon A, Erskine PD, Gillespie MJ, Mulligan DR. (2012) Embracing modern ecological methods – Monitoring and modelling for mine closure not compliance. In: Proceedings Life-of-Mine 2012, pp 25–32, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne.

Gordon A, Langford W, Bastin L, Lechner A, Bekessy SA. (2011) Simulating the value of collaboration in multi-actor conservation planning In: Proceedings of the 19th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, MODSIM, 12-16 December 2011, Perth, Australia.

Pamungkas A, Bekessy SA, Lane R. (2011) Assessing the benefits to community vulnerability of proactive adaptation for disaster risk management. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Building Resilience, 19–21 July 2011, Dambulla, Sri Lanka.

Gordon A., Langford W.T., Bastin L. (2009) Trade-Offs between public and private conservation policies. II International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling. 2-6 November, Terrassa, Spain.

Lechner A, Jones S, Bekessy SA. (2007) Development of a framework to assess the impact of scale dependant factors in the classification of landcover maps. In: International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Spatial Data Quality, (ed A Stein), Netherlands.

Thomas I, Holdsworth S, Bekessy SA. (2007) Implementing sustainability education across universities. SSEE Conference 2007 – International Conference on Engineering Sustainability, Perth, Australia.

Venier LA, Pearce JL, Wintle BA, Bekessy SA. (2007) Modelling and monitoring: Examining the utility of dynamic landscape metapopulation models for sustainable forest management. ‘Monitoring the Effectiveness of Biological Conservation” conference, 2–4 November 2004, Richmond, Canada.

Bekessy SA, Hayles C, Holdsworth S, Thomas I. (2006) Framework for Education for Sustainable Development Curricula in Universities: BELP Project at RMIT, ACTS Conference, 20-22 September 2006, Ballarat, Australia.

Fox J, Regan T, Bekessy SA, Wintle BA, Brown MJ, Meggs JM, Bonham KJ, Mesibov R, McCarthy MA, Munks SA, Wells P, Brereton R, Graham K, Hickey J, Turner PAM, Jones M, Brown W, Mooney N, Grove S, Yamada K, Burgman M. (2005) Proceedings of the Joint Conference: Australian Entomological Society’s 36th AGM and Scientific Conference/7th Invertebrate Biodiversity and Conservation Conference/Society of Australian Systematic Biologists, pp 99–100, Sydney, Australia.

Book reviews

Hardy MJ. (2014) Linking Australia’s landscapes: Lessons and opportunities from large-scale conservation networks (eds J. Fitzsimons, I. Pulsford, G. Wescott). Geographical Research 52: 224–225.


Kirk, H., Garrard, GE., Kusmanoff, AM., Gregg, EG., & Bekessy, SA. (2020) Updated assessment of the national effort towards feral cat control. Report for the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment.

Kirk H, Threlfall C, Soanes K, Parris K. (2020) Linking nature in the city: A framework for improving ecological connectivity across the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne, Australia.

Gordon A., Peterson I. (2019) Cumberland Subregion Conservation Plan — Vegetation Trend Analysis. RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria. Commissioned report for the NSW Department of Planning and Environment, Biosis and Open Lines. 48 pages.

Kirk H, Threlfall C, Soanes K, Ramalho C, Parris K, Amati M, Bekessy SA, Mata L. Linking nature in the city: A framework for improving ecological connectivity across the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne Urban Sustainability Branch.

Gordon A., Koshkina V. (2018) Western Sydney Strategic Plan – species distribution modelling. Commissioned report for the NSW Department of Planning and Environment, Biosis and Open Lines. 38 pages.

Kusmanoff AM, Bekessy SA, Wang Y, Johnstone A, Samarasekara C & Garrard GE (2018) Where are we now? An updated assessment of the national effort towards feral cat control. A report for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy.

Kirk H, Smith T, Backstrom A, Morán-Ordóñez A, Garrard GEGordon A, Ives CD, Bekessy SAMata L. (2017) Our City’s Little Gems – Butterfly diversity and flower-butterfly interactions in the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne.

Kusmanoff AMGarrard GE, Jackson S, Bekessy SA. (2017) Understanding and planning for the environmental benefits of community engagement. A review prepared for Parks Victoria.

Selinske MJ, Howard N, Knight AT. (2017) A benchmark assessment of landholder commitment. Report prepared for the Australian Land Conservation Alliance and The Nature Conservancy.

Garrard GE, Faulkner R, Mata LTorabi NPeterson IRGordon ABekessy SA. (2016) An assessment of the national effort towards feral cat control. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy.

Mata L, Ives CD, Morán-Ordóñez A, Garrard GEGordon A, Cranney K, Smith TR, Backstrom A, Bickel DJ, Hahs AK, Malipatil M, Moir ML, Plein M, Porch N, Semeraro L, Walker K, Vesk PA, Parris KM, Bekessy SA. (2016) The Little Things that Run the City – Insect ecology, biodiversity and conservation in the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne. For the high-resolution version click here.

Mata LGarrard GE, Hahs AK, Bolitho J, Chambers L, Clemann N, Faulkner R, Foster J, Harris GJ, Kutt A, McMaster D, McMullan-Fisher S, Menkhorst P, Read C, Sinclair S, Sparks D, Stajsic V, Tsyrlin E, West M, Parris K, Bekessy SA. (2016) Target species for rewilding, monitoring and public engagement in the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne’s Urban Sustainability Branch.

Mata L, Ives CD, Garrard GEGordon ABackstrom A, Cranney K, Smith TR, Stark L, Bickel DB, Cunningham S, Hahs AK, Hochuli D, Malipatil M, Moir M, Plein M, Porch N, Semeraro L, Standish R, Walker K, Vesk PA, Parris K, Bekessy SA. (2015) The Little Things that Run the City: How do Melbourne’s green spaces support insect biodiversity and ecosystem health? Report prepared for the City of Melbourne. For high-resolution pdf click here.

Ives CD, Oke C, Cooke B, Gordon ABekessy SA. (2014) Planning for green open space in urbanising landscapes. Report for the Australian Government Department of Environment, 129 pp.

Maron M, Gordon A. (2014) Peer review of the draft framework for biodiversity assessment for assessing and offsetting state significant development and state significant infrastructure in New South Wales. Report to the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, 33 pp.

Tulloch A, Gordon A, Rhodes JR. (2014) Identifying conservation priorities and evaluating scenarios of cumulative impacts of mining infrastructure in the Upper Spencer Gulf Region in South Australia. Report for the Federal Government as part of the National Environmental Research Plan, 72 pp.

Gordon A, Langford WT, Bekessy SA. (2011) Modelling the growth of Sydney and the impacts on the Cumberland Plain Woodland. Report prepared for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, 22 pp.

Garrard GE, Wintle BA. (2011) Minimum survey effort requirements for impact assessments under the EPBC Act 1999: A review of methods for estimating and managing detectability in biological surveys. A report to the Australian Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities (SEWPaC).

O’Malley A, Gordon A, McCaffrey N, Broughton C, Sharafi SM, Ewing A. (2011) Biodiversity Connectivity Investigation Stage 2: assessment of opportunities for ecological connectivity in the Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment. Report prepared for Melbourne Water Corporation, 71 pp.

McCaffrey A, Henry J, Timms S, Broughton C, Pettifer L, Bryant M, Shepherd M, Legg M, Gordon A. (2010) Ecological connectivity plan for the south-east region of Melbourne. Report prepared for the Department of Sustainability and Environment, 136 pp.

O’Malley A, Gordon A, Henry J, Broughton C. (2010) Biodiversity connectivity investigation – A review of methods to assess opportunities for ecological connectivity in the Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment. Report prepared for Melbourne Water Corporation, 84 pp.

Garrard GEBekessy SA, Wintle BA. (2009) Determining necessary survey effort to detect invasive weeds in native vegetation communities. Australian Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis Project 0906 – A report to the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Gordon A, Langford WT. (2009) Projections of future grassland condition change in the west of Melbourne. Report prepared for the Department of Sustainability and Environment, 12 pp.

Buxton M, Bekessy SA, Keating J, Budge T. (2008) The Effectiveness of local government planning controls in protecting native vegetation in the Port Phillip and Westernport Region. RMIT University/Latrobe University/Parsons Brinckerhoff, Melbourne, Australia, 178 pp.

Government submissions

Croeser T, Backstrom A, Berthon K, Garrard G, Gordon A, Gregg E, Gutiérrez M, Kidd L, Kirk H, Kusmanoff A, Selinske M, Sharma R, Thomas F, Bekessy S. (2020) Submission into the Inquiry into Environmental Infrastructure for Growing Populations, September 2020, 15pp.

Kidd L, Backstrom A, Kusmanoff AM, Gordon A, Gregg E, Damiens F, Thomas FM, Garrard GE, Kirk H, Ringma J, Berthon K, Gutierrez M, Hardy MJ, Selinske M, Croeser T, Bekessy SA. (2018) Submission to the Senate Inquiry on Australia’s Faunal Extinction Crisis, 12pp. 

Croeser T, Garrard GE, Kusmanoff AM, Gordon A, Bekessy SA, Kidd L, Berthon K, Selinske MJ, Gregg E, Thomas FM, Kirk H, Mata L, Damiens F, Hardy MJ, Peterson I, Mumaw LM, Torabi N, Backstrom A, Hurley SV. (2018) Submission from ICON Science to the Australia’s Strategy for Nature 2018–2030, 4pp. 

Threlfall C, Soanes K, Mata L, Lee K, Ramalho C, Bush J, Mumaw LM, Williams N, Parris K, Bekessy SA. (2018) Submission from the NESP Hub for Clean Air and Urban Landscapes on Australia’s Strategy for Nature 2018–2030, 4pp.

Bekessy SAHardy MJBackstrom A, Damiens F, Faulkner R, Garrard GE, Gordon A, Hartridge SV, Kusmanoff AM, Mata L, Mumaw L, Selinske MJ, Torabi N. (2016) Submission to the Melbourne Metro Rail Project Environmental Effects Statement, 3pp.   

Faulkner R, Corney HDamiens FKusmanoff AMGordon AHardy MJBackstrom AMata LMumaw LSelinske MJHartridge SV, van Wijnen S, Smith T, Garrard GEPeterson IRTorabi NBekessy SA. (2016) Comments on the Draft National Recovery Plan for Leadbeater’s Possum, 5 pp.

Kusmanoff AMGordon ABackstrom ADamiens F, Faulkner R, Garrard GEHardy MJHartridge SVMata LMumaw LMSelinske MJTorabi NBekessy SA. (2016) Submission to the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning on the Review of the Native Vegetation Clearing Regulations, 9 pp. 

Kusmanoff AMSelinske MJ, Mata LBekessy SAGordon AGarrard GECorney HBackstrom AToorabi NHardy MJ, Damiens F. (2016) Submission on Victoria’s new biodiversity strategy: Protecting Victoria’s Environment – Biodiversity 2036, 6 pp.

Gordon AHardy MJMata LGarrard GEKusmanoff AMBekessy SA. (2014) Submission to the Commonwealth Government’s Senate Environment and Communications References Committee Inquiry into Environmental Offsets, 5 pp. (Submission number: 34)

Hardy MJKusmanoff AMGordon AMumaw LBackstrom A, Cooke B, Garrard GE, Ives CD, Meiklejohn D, Oke C, Torabi NBekessy SA. (2014) Submission to the Commonwealth Government’s House Standing Committee on the Environment Inquiry into streamlining environmental regulation, ‘green tape’, and one stop shops, 9 pp. (Submission number: 62)

Gordon A, Ives CD, Langford WT, Bekessy SATorabi N, Cooke B, Wilson JN. (2012) Draft EPBC Act Environmental Offsets Policy. Submission to the Australian Government, 6 pp.

Ives CD, Garrard GEGordon AKusmanoff AM, Wilson JN. (2012) Future directions for native vegetation in Victoria: review of Victoria’s native vegetation permitted clearing regulations. Submission to the Victorian Government, 13 pp.

Gordon A, Chee YE, Garrard GE, Heard G, Ives CD, Parris K, Rumpff L. (2011) Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for Melbourne’s Growth Areas – A submission to the Draft for Public consolation. Submission to the Victorian Government , 8 pp.

Parris K, Bode M, Catford J, Jellinek S, Jones C, McCarthy MA, Moore J, Morris W, Regan T, Rout T, Rumpff L, Veltheim I, Vesk P, Williams N, Wintle BA, Bekessy SAGarrard GE, Heard G. (2009) Submission to the Growth Areas Authority On The Strategic Impact Assessment Report for the proposed expansion of Melbourne’s urban growth boundary.

We at ICON Science acknowledge the people of the Woi wurrung and Boon wurrung language groups of the eastern Kulin Nation on whose unceded lands we conduct our research, teaching and service.